Chemical Leak and Protection Against It

Chemical Leak and Protection

What is chemical leak

The Chemical lean can be define as follows:

  • A chemical leak or spill is any spillage of a chemical that is considered harmful, such as hydrochloric acid or methanol
  • The chemicals have a common factor in that they tend to be corrosive (HCl or NaOH, for example), flammable (methanol, acetonitrile)
  • Toxic (cyanide, mercury), irritants (solid sodium carbonate), environmental poisons (any soluble zinc salt, mercury and its compounds) or smelly (mercaptans, sulfide gases).
  • Harmfulness depends on the chemical and the size of the leak or
  • Large spills have greater effects, small ones can be confined. Mild irritants (ascorbic acid, for example) are less serious than severe poisons, such as cyanide
  • So chemical leak may leads to harmful for human being, and properties of ecology

Material Safety Data Sheet

A Material Safety Data Sheet (Msds), Safety Data Sheet (Sds),[1] Or Product Safety Data Sheet (Psds) Is An Important Component Of Product Stewardship And Workplace Safety. It Is Intended To Provide Workers And Emergency Personnel With Procedures For Handling Or Working With That Substance In A Safe Manner, And Includes Information Such As Physical Data (Melting Point, Boiling Point, Flash Point, Etc.),Toxicity, Health Effects, First Aid, Reactivity, Storage, Disposal, Protective Equipment, And Spill-Handling Procedures. Msds Formats Can Vary From Source To Source Within A Country Depending On National Requirements


Product Name:

Product Information:

Company Name:


Phone No.

Fax No

Chemical Name:

Product Code:

Hazardous Ingredients / Components:


Other Components: Risk Phrases & Symbol

For e.g.: Xi = Irritant,  R36  =  Irritating to eyes,  R37  =  Irritating to respiratory system, R38 = Irritating to skin

Health: Inhalation Skin Contact

Eye Contact

Ingestion Fire:



Skin Contact:

Eye Contact:


Extinguishing media:

Fire Fighting Protective Equipment:

Specific Hazards:

Personal precautions:

Environmental precautions:

Method for cleaning up:



Engineering measures:

Respirators Eye Protection

Personal protective equipment:


Safety glasses

Occupational Exposure Limits – Hazardous Ingredients

Appearance: Form: Colour: Odour:

PH (Value): Boiling Point:


Melting Point:

Flash Point:

Flammable Limits:

Auto Ignition Temperature: Explosive Properties: Oxidising Properties:

Vapour Pressure (mm Hg): Density (g/ml):

Solubility (Water):

Solubility (Other):

Partition Coefficient

Hazardous Reactions:

Hazardous Decomposition Product(s): Conditions to avoid:

Materials to avoid:

Inhalation (LC50):

Skin Contact (Dermal – LD50): Eye Contact:

Ingestion (Oral – LD50)

Environmental Hazards: Persistence and Degradation:
Effect on Effluent Treatment:

Product & contaminated packaging:





Classification and labeling Danger symbol:
Danger Label:
Safety phrases:



Different Types of Chemica, Their property and Potential Hazards Health


Physico-chemical Properties:-

  • Physical state: Gas. Liquid under pressure.
  • Colour: Colourless
  • Odour: Intensely irritating ammoniacal
  • Odour Threshold: 5-53
  • Molecular Formula: NH3
  • Solubility: Soluble in Soluble in alcohol and ether.
  • Specific Gravity: 68 (-33 °C)
  • Relative Vapour Density (air=1): 6
  • Vapour Pressure (20 °C): 882 kPa
  • Flash Point (°C): Not available
  • Flammability Limits (%): 5 – 25
  • Auto ignition Temperature (°C): 669
  • % Volatile by Volume: 100
  • Boiling Point/Range (°C): -33.4
  • pH: 6 (1M @ 25 °C)
  • Freezing Point/Range (°C): -77.7

Ammonia is a colorless gas and it has a characteristic, pungent, choking odor. Ammonia has a molecular weight of 17, which makes it about half as dense as air. Ammonia is exceedingly soluble in water (one volume of water will dissolve 1000 volumes of ammonia gas at standard temperature and pressure). Ammonia boils at – 33.4°c (-28°f) and freezes at -77.7°c (-108°f). Ammonia can be detected by the human nose with very small amounts present in the atmosphere. Amounts as small as about 50 parts per million in air can be detected simply by sniffing. Ammonia sharply irritates the eyes and air passages to the lungs. At High Concentrations it makes the lungs fill with fluid, which can quickly cause death unless prompt medical aid is given.

The chemical formula for Ammonia Is NH3

The Word “anhydrous” means “devoid of, or without water”. Therefore anhydrous ammonia is merely “pure ammonia” with no added water.

Uses Of Ammonia

One of the principle commercial uses of ammonia is as a refrigerant. When a gas is liquefied, heat is given off; when a liquid evaporates, heat is absorbed. In the  process  of  the  manufacture  of the ice for the  Holderness  school  ice-rink,  ammonia  is  compressed by pumps and becomes hot; it is then  cooled by water, which flows over the ammonia pipes

When pressure is released hen cool, the compressed ammonia liquefies, the liquid ammonia evaporates;  in  doing  so  it  takes  up heat. The evaporation takes place in the pipes surrounded by  a solution of low freezing point containing calcium chloride or common salt. This cooled solution is then piped to the skating rink where it freezes the rink water surrounding the pipes. When the ammonia evaporates it is usually reduced to a temperature of below

-33.4°c (-28°f).

Potential Hazards Health

Ammonia may be fatal if inhaled. The vapors are extremely irritating and corrosive

Contact with ammonia gas or liquefied ammonia may cause burns to the skin, and in the case of escaping ammonia gas,  severe frostbite or freezing of the skin and flesh

A fire at an ammonia source will produce  irritating  corrosive  and toxic gases. Runoff from fire control efforts may cause ground and groundwater pollution

Fire or Explosion

Ammonia will not ignite in air. It will burn in  pure  oxygen. Ammonia gas, while only about half as dense as air is still heavy enough so that it will sink to ground level instead of remaining suspended in the air. Therefore, it will spread mostly along, or near to, the ground, rather than blowing like a full cloud. Containers of anhydrous ammonia are under great pressure. Anhydrous ammonia containers may explode when heated and cylinders may rocket when ruptured.

Public Safety

Set up an initial isolation zone from the spill or leak for at least 300 feet in all directions.

Remove all persons and animals in a “crosswind” direction to outside the initial isolation zone.

Keep all unauthorized personnel away. This includes all administrative personnel of the holderness school  unless  they  are part of the institutions emergency management team.

All personnel are to stay upwind of the spill/leak.

Since ammonia gas will spread  along  the  ground…it  will  collect  in low or confined areas, such as, basements, ground depressions, underground  access  points  under  manhole  covers,  etc.  Therefore, all personnel are to stay out of these low areas.

Closed spaces (even on the same level as the spill/leak) are to be well ventilated before entering. Just opening doors and windows is not sufficient. If any odor of ammonia is present, the ventilation must be forced by use of large volume fans. Note: since ammonia in air is not flammable or explosive, the use of fire department smoke ejector electric fans is permissible.

Protective Clothing

Positive pressure self-contained breathing  apparatus  (scba)  is  a must. Use of older “demand type” scba units should not be allowed.

Structural firefighting protective clothing is not effective in ammonia spill/leak situations. It should be worn in  fire  situations only.

Chemical protective clothing should be worn. It must be remembered that chemical protective clothing provides no thermal protection.


If Ammonia Is Evident In A Downwind Direction At The Edge Of The Initial Isolation Circle, Then The  Isolation  Zone  Must  Be  Extended Out On The Downwind Side For At Least An Additional 1000feet (.2miles). The Width Of This Extended Isolation Zone Beyond The Initial Isolation Circle  Should  Be  Equal To The Length  Of  The Zone, Ie. 1000feet.

Evacuation areas may be altered due to varying weather conditions. Very light winds may shorten evacuation areas, while strong winds may preclude increasing the evacuation area. Incident command should be cautious of wind direction and

Wind speed changes occurring during the operation. While  higher wind speeds will help to disperse the ammonia gas into the atmosphere more rapidly, it will also  extend the isolation  area farther downwind during the early stages of the operation. Precipitation in any form, drizzle, rain, snow, etc., may suppress the expansion of the ammonia cloud  into  the  atmosphere,  but  it  will keep the cloud more dense in the initial area.


On small fires dry chemical or  co2  may  be  used.  Note  difference from fighting chlorine fires.

On large fires … Water spray, fog, or regular foam. Do not get water inside the ammonia containers.

Move undamaged containers from the fire area if it can be  done without risk.

Fires involving Tanks:

Fight Fires from a Maximum Distance Using Unmanned Hoses Or Monitors.

Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after the fire is out.

Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices. Icing may occur.

Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank

Always Stay Away From Ends Of Tanks. Spill or Leak

Fully encapsulating vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire.

Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do so without risk.

If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid.

Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not direct water at spill or source leak.

Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Isolate area until gas has dispersed.

First Aid

Skin or eye contact with gaseous or liquid ammonia and/or the ingestion of gaseous ammonia into the respiratory system creates a very serious condition. First aid and medical treatment at the scene should only be performed by qualified ems personnel.

Move victim to fresh air.

Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim has inhaled or ingested ammonia gas. Use a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve.

Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing.

In case of contact with liquefied ammonia, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water.

Remember – the effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed


General Properties Of Chlorine

Chlorine has a characteristic penetrating and irritating odor. The gas is greenish yellow in color and the liquid is clear amber.

Atomic and Molecular Properties

Atomic Symbol Cl          Atomic Weight     ………………………………….  35.453

Atomic Number……………. 17

Molecular Weight          70.906

Chemical Properties


Chlorine, gas or liquid, is non-explosive and non-flammable. It is an oxidizer and is capable of supporting combustion. Many organic chemicals react readily with chlorine, sometimes violently.


Chlorine usually forms compounds with a valence of -1 but it can combine with a valence of +1,

+3, +4, +5 or +7.

Chemical Reactions

Reactions With Water – Chlorine is only slightly soluble in water. (0.3 to 0.7 percent)

Reactions With Metals – At ordinary temperatures dry chlorine, gas or liquid, reacts with aluminum, arsenic, gold, mercury, selenium, tellurium, tin,  and  titanium.  Carbon  steel  ignites  near  483°F (251°C).

Reactions With Organic Compounds – Chlorine reacts with many organic compounds. Some reactions can be extremely violent or explosive.

Physical Properties

The following properties are for pure chlorine. “Standard conditions”– where referenced — are 32°F

(O°C) and an absolute pressure of 14.696 psi (101.325 kPa).

Boiling Point

(Liquefying Point) = -29.15°F (-33.97°C)


Gas at Standard Conditions = 0.2006 lb/ft3 (3.213 kg/m3) Saturated Gas = At 32°F (O°C), 0.7632 lb/ft3 (12.23 Kg/m3) Saturated Liquid = 91.56 lb/ft3 (1467 kg/m3) at 32°F (0°C); 88.76 lb/ft3 (11.87 lb/gal; 1422 kg/m3) at 60°F (15.6°C)

Latent Heat of Vaporization = 123.9 Btu/lb (288.1 kJ/kg) Melting Point – Freezing Point =  -149.76°F  (-100.98°C) Solubility in Water = 6.93 lbs/100 gals. (60°F and 14.696 psi) Specific Gravity = Gas, 2.485 (air); Liquid, 1.467 0/4°C (water) Vapor Pressure = 53.51 psi (368.9 kPa) at 32°F (0°C);

112.95 psi (778.8 kPa) at 77°F (25°C).

Latent Heat of Vaporization = 123.9 Btu/lb (288.1 kJ/kg) Melting Point – Freezing Point =  -149.76°F  (-100.98°C) Solubility in Water = 6.93 lbs/100 gals. (60°F and 14.696 psi) Specific Gravity = Gas, 2.485 (air); Liquid, 1.467 0/4°C (water) Vapor Pressure = 53.51 psi (368.9 kPa) at 32°F (0°C);

112.95 psi (778.8 kPa) at 77°F (25°C).


Saturated Gas = 0.0125 centipoise (0.0125 mPa·s) at 32°F (0°C); 0.0132 centipoise (0.0132 mPa·s) at 60°F (15.6°C)

Liquid = 0.3863 centipoise (0.3863 mPa·s) at 32°F (0°C); 0.3538 centipoise (0.3538 mPa·s) at 60°F (15.6°C).


Chlorine is widely distributed in nature although not as a free element. Approximately two percent of them earth’s surface materials is chlorine which is mostly in the form of sodium chloride in sea water and in natural deposits as carnallite (MgCl2.KCl.6H2O) and as sylvite (KCl).