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Fire and Safety management Uncategorized


The importance of fire protection and prevention, and suppression mechanisms in protecting a building from fire cannot be overstated. Some people, however, may be uncertain how these processes vary. It’s important to learn how fire protection, prevention, and suppression systems work together rather than using these words interchangeably. We’ll describe these three systems and how they all work together to keep both buildings and people safe in this article.

Fire Protection

A fire protection system’s goal is to protect a building’s occupants while minimizing the damage caused by fire. Overall, the aim is to provide as large a window as possible for a safe evacuation while minimizing potential repair costs.

There are two types of fire protection systems: active and passive. While active systems (such as fire alarms and sprinklers) are intended to help battle fires, passive fire protection refers to structural measures that prevent flames and smoke from spreading. To learn more about this topic, read our article titled “What is an Active and Passive Fire Protection System?”

An arrangement of facility provided in the building for fire safety such as fire extinguisher, Hydrant, alarm system etc. There are two types of fire protection.

  1. Active Fire Protection:-

The meaning of active fire protection is that it is always ready to meet any emergency that it is actually met. It can perform its duty i.e. extinguishing the fire in the affected

    • Hard Appliances/ Portable Fire Extinguisher:-

      Hard appliances generally consist of portable fire extinguisher & hose reels.

    • Sprinklers/ Sprayers:-

      This system is mainly used to sprinkler/ spray water/ water base extinguishing agents on the risk at a pre determine velocity & pressure. This system has got a two way benefit i.e. it is used directing on the fire& it cools the surrounding areas which will stop spreading of fire.

2. Passive Fire Protection:-

This part causes action or action, when the fire has started. This works either through sensors/ manually/ intrinsically. 

    • Fire Resistant Doors:- These are doors which will resist fire for a particular period & would not allow flame to pass from one side to the other.
    • Detectors:- The fire detectors are melting for detection of fire. They work like police which detect fire at the incipient level. There are detectors which can detect the fire & activated the extinguishing system also available is the fire detectors mounted as canisters which contain extinguishing agents.

Means of Escape in Case of Fire:-

The means of escape or exit may be a doorway passageway or corridor to internal stair case or external staircase which have approach to the road or roof of the building. 

1. Door Way:-

    • Doorway should open in a stairway horizontally of corridor or passage to provide continuous means of escape.

    • No door way shall be less than 100cm. in width 7 height should not less than 200cm.

    • Door way should not open immediately in flight on the stair landing equal to width of door should be provided in the stairway at the door way

    • Doorways shall be open and able from inside with the use of keys.

2. Corridor of Passageway:-

The width of the corridor of passage shall not less than the width of the door way, the corridor & passageway should go up to the stairway. The height of the corridor in the passageway shall not be less than 2.4 meters.

3. Internal Staircases:-

    • Internal staircase shall be constructed of noncombustible material.
    • Internal staircase shall be constructed as a self-cogent unit without an external wall.

    • Staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft unless it is totally enclosed by fire resistance material.

    • No gas pipeline shall be laid down in the internal staircase.

    • Min width of the tread without nosing shall be 25cm for internal staircase of residential building. This shall be 30cm for other types of buildings. 

    • Max height of risers shall be 19cm for residential buildings & 15cm for other buildings.

    • The no. of risers not is more than 1 no. per flight
    • Hand rail shall be provided at the min height of 100cm. his distance shall be measured from the base of the middle of the tread to the top of the handrail.

    • Width of the staircase for residential building should be 1mtr for assembly building 1.5mtr. For educational building up to 24mtr. Height 2mtr & other buildings 2.5mtr.

4. External Staircases:-

    • All fire escapes shall be directly connected to the ground level.

    • Internal to the fire escapes should be separated & away from the internal cases.

    • For construction of fire escape care shall be taken towards the obstruction caused to door or windows.

    • Fire steps shall be constructed of non-combustible material

    • The flight with respect to landing shall not be more than us. 

    • The width of fire escape shall not less than 1 meter no of tracks shall not be more than is flight.

    • Trade should be 20c.m width & risks shall not be more 19cm in height.

    • Hand rail should not less than 100cm in flight.

5. Mutual aids Scheme:-

    • It is understanding between the factories which are located nearby about the provision at necessary the incase of emergency type fire explosion building

    • The effected factory is provided necessary help by the members of mutual aid sense for fire fighting, medical aid, and rescue operation. 

    • A meeting is generally then both the members mutual.

Compart mentation & Fire Separation :-

To prevent the fire in building from spreading from its area of origin to other part of the building the walls & floors inclosing each part of the building the walls & floors including each part of the building must from effective barriers to fire in building the regenerated of fire the limit of sign for certain building or compartment according to their purpose group number limits are placed on the single story building except for those in the institutional & other residential group (single story hospital/hotel) in which the floor are is limited. Compartment walls & floor must be construct of non-combustible material as must any structural members are supporting then these are elements of structure & must theses fair be the materials of fire resistance request by the for very highest floor area & capacities with in the maximum size & limitation of the particular purpose & group of the building. The building or compartment under construction.

Engineering workshop where the risk from the main production is externally low but that the finishing process by paint, spring or instance is relatively high in such a case of the finishing process is separate from the production side by enclosing with fire resisting construction this methods can be applied from this fundamentals to the most employ of multi occupancy development project this bearing of the building into fire fighting.

The aim of Compart mentation is to contain the fire within the building to minimum possible area.

The Compart mentation concept can be studied under two broad headings:- 

  • The integrity of the compartment wall

  • The integrity of the compartment floor
  1.  Compartment Walls:-

    Where there are walls there must be means of assess through them & more often than not doors to provide security amenity & fire safety. The fire resistance of timber door in excess of 1hr cannot be expected unless they are made up of composite. It is necessary therefore where fire resistance required of the structure is more than 1hr to consider the use of fire resistance shutter controlled by automatic means to ensure the continuity of fire resisting at the opening. 

  2. Compart mentation of Floor:-

    • Stair cases, lifts & Escalators:-

      Opening to accommodation vertical transportation means provides a vertical shaft which can be ready mean of passage of fire from one story to another accentuated by a fire. It is vitally important to ensure that the top & bottom of the shape is also protected to the same standard of fire resistance & that any access ways are also fully protected. It is preferable for staircases enclosure to be ventilated at the top since this reduces considerably the tendency for on outbreak of fire in the shaft to spread latterly. Lift well should preferable have opening at the top in the form of permanent ventilation, the amount of those being related to the number of lifts in enclosure. 

In case of doors, to staircases & shutter & door to lift must have a minimum standard of fire resistance of ½ hr or 1hr escalator where a standard of fire resistance in excess of fire is required double shutter can be used.

    • Holes & Pipes:-

      Pipes are contained with a shaft of adequate the resistance. It has been standard practice for many years to accept that 153mm (6inch) non-combustible.

Ventilation system including fire & smoke venting:-

  • Smoke & hot gases generated from fire go upwards. They light the surrounding air in absences at vent these products of combustion with fill in fire building with hot Smokey gases at the roof level moved by connection & for spread of fire towards upper floor.
  • The provision of properly designed & suitably located vents & adequate numbers in the building ships the speedy removal of smoke & hot gases thus the vent prevents spread of fire & also reduces the damage construction & structure as building by heat & smoke. In addition vents help to the fireman for firefighting & also minimize personal hazard to the fireman
  • Time taken for occupations of smoke & hot gases within the building in case of fire is very short flame the building devoices should be design to operate automatically as early as possible. E.g.:- Foot base doors.
  • Wherever automatic sprinklers are provided in the building, automatic building system should operate after that sprinkler operates otherwise venting may delay. 
  • Venting system is most-useful in industrial building warehouses, widow learning buildings, and basement underground structures.
  • Fire vent should be provided in all industrial building if the floor area is more than 750mt.

  • The buildings of industrial whose floor is less than 750mt, vent later should be provided on the external valve to act as a vent for smoke & hot gases. These vents should be kept open at all time or should operate automatically in cases of fire
  • For vents to work with full efficiency the area of inlet for fresh air entering the building for must be at list total area of vents. 

  • Roof vent provided in single story building causes exposal hazard to the add joint whose height is more than single story building the exposure hazard is lighter from flying hot burning object or radioactive or both.

  • In case of a fire electrically operated door, exhaust should be switched off.

The maximum spacing between vent shall be as follows:-

  • Loud heat release vent shall be 45m between centers

  • For medium heat release vent shall be 36m between the centers.

For height heat release vent shall be 22 to 30m between the center.



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