ORGANIZATION FOR FIRE PREVENTION, INSPECTION ENFORCEMENT OF CODES, PUBLIC EDUCATION & COMMUNITY RELATION
1) Loss Prevention Association (INDIA):-
- Loss prevention association of INDIA Is a nonprofit origination sponsored by the nationalized general insurance industry?
- Its main aim is to create awareness on the necessity for loss prevention by identifying the main potential for losses; it provides expertise to promote loss prevention.
- P.A. run training courses & workshops organizes conferences & seminars, provide consultancy & advisory services on loss prevention.
- It publishes booklets, leaflets, folders, posters & the quarterly loss prevention news
- L. P.A. uses the mass means to create awareness of fire prevention & rode safety measures as well as cargo loss minimization.
- It educates children through audio visual programmers, paintings, essay & quiz
L.P.A. could help the under & industrial management by providing specialized expertise in the prevention & control of fires LPA’s services include
- Educating & training your staff at different level on various aspect of fire safety such as fire fighting & rescue
- Suggesting appropriation fire protection measures for your organization after on in depth inspection & study
- Providing publication & poster for display at various strategic places
- Developing a checklist on fire safety
2) Underwriter’s Laboratory U.S.A.:-
- UL founded in 1894 is a nonprofit independent organization testing laboratory in USA for public safety
- It maintains & operates laboratories for examination & testing of devices system & material to determine their relation to life, safety fire, casualty hazards & crime prevention
- The UL boards of trustee is elected by the membership & represent consumers interests, the insurance industry a governmental body or agency, education, a public safety body or agency or safety expert a standardization expert or public utility
- In addition UL has organized engineering council in the areas of casualty burglary protection electrical, fire & marine organization
- UL publishes annual directories which covers subjects like building material, fire protection equipment, fire resistance, electrical appliances & utilization equipment
- Electrical construction material hazards location equipment, marine product, classified product, accident & burglary protection equipment, gas & oil equipment
3) National Fire Protection Association:-
N.F.P.A. is most recognized body founded in U.S.A. in the field of the fire protection internationally. It publishes the national fire protection code in 15 volume & number of standard partially covering all aspect of fire safety & security many of these standard have been adopted by various government all agencies & consequently have become a part of law in U.S.A. some NFPA standard have been refused as source material by occupational safety & health act 1970.
Fire load shall be grade into three classes as follows
a) LOW FIRE LOAD:-
Not exceeding 2, 75,000 kcal/ mtr2 & applicable to domestic building, hotels & offices & similar other building.
b) MODERATE FIRE LOAD:-
Exceeding 2, 75,000 kcal/ mtr2 but not exceeding 5, 50,000 kcal/ mtr2 is applicable to business & factory building.
c) HIGH FIRE LOAD :-
Exceeding 5, 50,000 kcal/ mtr2 but not exceeding 11 lacks / mt2 & is applicable to go down & similar structure.
Fire Lode in Buildings:-
This assessment of the severity of fire due to the combustible materials in a building is made by references to that is known as the fire load, which is the amount of heat expressed in a kcal’s which would be generated per m2 of floor area of a compartment of building by the complete combustion of its contents & any combustible parts of the building.
Calculation of Fire Load:-
It is determined by multiplying the weight of all the combustible materials by their calorific values & dividing by the area of the floor, it is based on the assumption that the materials are uniformly distributed over the whole of floor.
Multiplying the weights of all combustible material by their respective calorific values & dividing by the floor area under consideration determine the fire load
Weight of the combustible material X calorific value.
Fire load= ——————————————————————— = Kcal / m2
Example:- A building containing 1500 kg of combustible material having a calorific value of 36000 kcal/kg suppose a section of building has the floor area of 90 m2 calculation the fire load.
Fire load= —————– = 60,000 kc
The calorific value is the property of a material which indicates the amount of heat which will be generated by a particular quantity of that material & it governs the ultimate severity of fire. Thus the maximum heat is evolved from materials having highest calorific valves. The calorific valves of some materials are given below:-
Bitumen : – 3521.58 kcal/kg.
Cork : – 16731.27 kcal/kg.
Rapper : – 16266.52 kcal/kg.
Petrol : – 46475.77 kcal/kg.
Rubber : – 39504.40 kcal/kg.
Wood : – 18590.60 kcal/kg.
GRADING OF OCCUPANCIES BY FIRE LOAD:-
a) OCCUPANCIES OF LOW FIRE LOAD:-
The fire load of occupancies shall be described as low if it does not exceeds an average of 2, 75,000 kcal/ mtr2 of net floor area of any 5 compartment no an average of 5 lack 50,000 kcal/ mtr2 on limited isolated area.
b) OCCUPANCIES OF MODERATE FIRE LOAD:-
The fire load of an occupancy shall be described as moderate if exceed on average of 2, 75,000 kcal/ mtr2 of net floor on any compartment, but does not exceed an average of 5,50,000 kcal/ mtr2 on limited isolated area.
c) OCCUPANCIES OF HIGH FIRE LOAD:-
The fire load of occupancy shall be described as high if it exceeds an average of 5, 50,000 kcal/ mtr2 of net floor area nor an average of 22,00,000 kcal/ mtr2 on limited isolated area.
i) Carry out rescue work first. Place ladder at appropriate place for this purpose.
ii) At the same time send message to head quarters given all details of fire.
e.g.:- Size of building, size of fire, water supply etc. & whether any additional help is necessary message to be sent at regular intervals, given all particulars about procedure of operations.
iii) Arrangement for supply of petrol, oil, lights, extra houses, if the fire fighting is likely to continue for some time.
iv) Keep a vigilant eye to see that everyone is doing his job properly & is in safe position.
v) Sending “FIRE OUT” message & then order for “MAKE UP”.