First Aid- CPR, for Shock, Heat Injury, Burns, and Poisoning
The importance of CPR training cannot be overstated. It has the potential to save your life, your children’s lives, your parents’ lives, and even the lives of strangers. CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is a life-saving method that helps sustain blood flow to the brain and heart in an emergency circumstance.
What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat
When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
- When a doctor tells you to stop
- When others relieve you
- When you cannot physically continue
- When the casualty starts to breathe on his own
Two types of rescue breathing
- Mouth to mouth
- Mouth to nose
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
1. The jaw thrust
2. Head tilt/chin lift methods
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
- Possible concussions (head injuries)
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
- Two-Man Support Carry
- Two-Man Arms Carry
- Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
- Four-Hand Seat Carry
- Two-Hand Seat Carry
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one-man methods?
- Fireman’s carry
- Supporting carry
- Arms Carry
- Saddleback carry
- Pack-strap carry
- Pistol belt carry
- Pistol belt drag
- Neck drag
- LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE
- LBE Carry UsingCasualty’s LBE
- Cradle Drop Drag
SHOCK AND UNCONSCIOUSNESS
What is shock
It is the acute weakness following depression in function of vital orgns of body like heart, lungs, kidney brain etc. In case of shock, blood pressure invariably drops leading to fainting.
What is unconsciousness
It is loss of senses due to interruption in functions of brain
Types of shock
- Nerve shock: Brain and nerve affected without physical injury, leading to sudden fall of blood pressure. This may be due to some bad news e.g. death in the family, or exposure to fright etc.
- Established shock : External or internal physical injury leading to sudden fall of blood pressure.
Types of Unconscious
- Partial unconsciousness: In this case, the patient reacts to stimulus e.g. grimaces when pinched, pupils react to light.
- Total unconsciousness : In this case, the patient does not react at all to any stimulus,
What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
- Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
- Restlessness and nervousness
- Loss of blood
- Fast breathing
- Nausea or vomiting
- Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
- Often perspires freely
- May pass out.
The treatment for shock?
“P.E.L.C.R.N.” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)
- Position the casualty on their back
- Elevate the Legs
- Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
- Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
- Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
- Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
- Remove foreign body, if any, from inside the mouth
- Get fresh air: give artificial respiration, if respiration falls.
- Reassure victim
- Keep victim lying down, unless there is injury in the head, chest or abdomen, keep his head down.
- Loosen clothing
- Cover with blanket
- If the victim is conscious, give him tea or water.
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When the casualty has a:
- Head injury
- Abdominal wound
- Fractured (unsplinted) leg
What is a heat injury?
A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body
What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
How do you stop bleeding?
- Apply a field dressing
- Manual pressure
- Elevate the limb
- Apply a pressure dressing
- Digital Pressure
- Apply a tourniquet
It is an injury due to dry heat e.g. fire, hot machine-parts, electric spark, flame of explosion in mines.
What is an injury due to moist heat e.g. hot water, steam, hot oil etc?
Extent of burn
The total surface area affected, determines the extent of burn. Greater the extent of burn more the fluid loss and consequent degree of shock.
Extent fo burn should therefore be ascertained to judge the severity of injury. For this purpose, it is best to use the Rule of Nine e.g.
Head & Neck = 9
Each Arm = 9
Each Leg = 9
Front of Trunk = 9 X 9 = 18
Back of Trunk = 9 X 9 = 18
This severity of injury of a person with burnt back is twice that of a person with a burnt arm
This the severity of injury of a person with burnt back is twice that of a person with a burnt arm.
1. Do not disturb the burn injury; do not prick the blisters : do not remove burnt clothing
2.Do not disturb the burn injury; do not prick the blisters : do not remove burnt clothing
3. Adopt strict asepsis. Clean and wash your hands put burn dressing over the burnt part of the body and bandage.
4. Combat shock If the extent of burn is large take the victim to the doctor on a stretcher; do not make him walk in any case.
1. Do not disturb the burn injury; do not prick the blisters : do not remove burnt clothing
2. Adopt strict asepsis. Clean and wash your hands put burn dressing over the burnt part of the body and bandage.
3. Combat shock
If the extent of burn is large take the victim to the doctor on a stretcher; do not make him walk in any case.
Poisoning is caused by swallowing, injecting, breathing in, or otherwise being exposed to a harmful substance. Most poisonings occur by accident.
Immediate first aid is very important in a poisoning emergency. The first aid you give before getting medical help can save a person’s life.
Approximately 2.5 million poisonings are reported to United States poison control centers every year, with nearly 1,000 reported deaths.
It is important to note that just because a package does not have a warning label doesn’t mean it is safe. You should consider poisoning if someone suddenly becomes sick for no apparent reason, or if the person is found near a furnace, car, fire, or in an area that is not well ventilated.
Symptoms of poisoning may take time to develop. However, if you think someone has been poisoned, do not wait for symptoms to develop before getting that person medical help
Items that can cause poisoning include:
- Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters)
- Certain foods (See: Food Poisoning)
- Chemicals in the workplace
- Drugs, including over-the-counter and prescription medicines (such as an aspirin overdose) and illicit drugs such as cocaine
- Household detergents and cleaning products
- Household and outdoor plants (eating toxic plants)
Symptoms vary according to the poison, but may include:
- Abdominal pain
- Bluish lips
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Double vision
- Unusual breath odor
- Heart palpitations
- Loss of appetite
- Loss of bladder control
- Muscle twitching
- Nausea and vomiting
- Shortness of breath
- Skin rash or burns
First Aid for poisoning
Seek immediate medical help.
For poisoning by swallowing:
- Check and monitor the person’s airway, breathing, and pulse. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
- Try to make sure that the person has indeed been poisoned. It may be hard to tell. Some signs include chemical-smelling breath, burns around the mouth, difficulty breathing, vomiting, or unusual odors on the person. If possible, identify the poison.
- Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional.
- If the person vomits, clear the person’s airway. Wrap a cloth around your fingers before cleaning out the mouth and throat. If the person has been sick from a plant part, save the vomit. It may help experts identify what medicine can be used to help reverse the poisoning.
- If the person starts having convulsions, give convulsion first aid.
- Keep the person comfortable. The person should be rolled onto the left side, and remain there while getting or waiting for medical help.
- If the poison has spilled on the person’s clothes, remove the clothing and flush the skin with water.
For inhalation poisoning:
- Call for emergency help. Never attempt to rescue a person without notifying others first.
- If it is safe to do so, rescue the person from the danger of the gas, fumes, or smoke. Open windows and doors to remove the fumes.
- Take several deep breaths of fresh air, and then hold your breath as you go in. Hold a wet cloth over your nose and mouth.
- Do not light a match or use a lighter because some gases can catch fire.
- After rescuing the person from danger, check and monitor the person’s airway, breathing, and pulse. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
- If necessary, perform first aid for eye injuries (eye emergencies) or convulsions ( convulsion first aid).
- If the person vomits, clear the person’s airway. Wrap a cloth around your fingers before cleaning out the mouth and throat.
- Even if the person seems perfectly fine, get medical help.
- Do NOT give an unconscious person anything by mouth.
- Do NOT induce vomiting unless you are told to do so by the Poison Control Center or a doctor. A strong poison that burns on the way down the throat will also do damage on the way back up.
- Do NOT try to neutralize the poison with lemon juice or vinegar, or any other substance, unless you are told to do so by the Poison Control Center or a doctor.
- Do NOT use any “cure-all” type antidote.
- Do NOT wait for symptoms to develop if you suspect that someone has been poisoned.
Join the course at PCFSM