Factors Involved In Fire Risk & Standard in Warehouse
All major factories & large scale industries plant have get certain amount of fire hazardous & consequent danger to life of workers property & the surrounding environment. The degree & intensity of such risk would vary from factory is depends upon the following factors.
Several combustible & inflammable material that are used in processes storage & handling
Capacity of production
The type of premises within which the industrial factory is setup.
- >630C Combustible.
<630C Flammable material.
Therefore the fire officer of the factory should judge the degree of fire hazards & associated which by considering about power factors. Accordingly fire prevention & protection plan shall be prepared fire fighting power of the factory standard basis.
This note is frames under section 38 of factory act1948
In every factory there shall be following firefighting equipment shall be provided & maintained.
Two fire buckets of a 9litter each for every 100mt2. Floor area subject of to the minimum of 4 buckets on every floor
IRE FIGHTING POWER OF A FACTORY IN WAREHOUSE
It is defined as a total amount of water required for firefighting inside the factory.
In every factory adequate water supply for firefighting shall be provided & the amount of water required is 550lit/min or more as per the following formula.
Lpm= (A+B+C+D)/ 20
A: – Total area in sq.m of all floor if all building of the factory.
B: – Total area in a sq.mt of all floors including open space to which Combustible material are stored or handled.
C: – Total area in mt2 of all floors which are above 15mt from ground level.
D: – Total area in mt2 of all floors of buildings other than those of fire Resistance Construction
Adequate no. of trailer pumps shall be provided in the factory. This pump shall have all necessary equipment & it shall be housed in a separate shape vehicle with towing arrangement 51 shall be provided such that one vehicle for every floor trailer pump & minimum of one such vehicle shall be kept available at all the time.
Where hydrant pipe supply is provided the size of the main shall not be less than 15cm diameter & it shall be capable of supplying minimum of 4500 lit/min at a pressure of not less than 7kg.
NO. OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS REQUIRED IN THE FACTORY/WAREHOUSE
In factories have more than 100m2 floor area where fire may occur due to the combustible material other than flammable liquids electrical equipment’s.
For class A:- water sealing type portable fire extinguisher at the rate of 1 for every 500mt2 & spaced not more than 30mt a part subject for minimum of one extinguisher &b one fire bucket for flowing:-
For class B: – foam, D.C.P., co2.
C: – D.C.P, Co2, for electrical fire.
D: – D.C.P.
WATER SUPPLY FOR URBAN AREAS FOR FIRE FIGHTING:-
The requirement of water supply for fire fighting in urban areas is 100 Lpm pumping capacity for every 1000population plus a resource of gallon head for firefighting purpose shall be provided for cites having a population of 2laks & above.
For residential area the main pipeline shall not less than 4 inches in diameter & should be capable of giving discharge at the minimum of 500lpm at pressure not less than a pound per square inch (pst)
SCALE FOR FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT:-
The standards for scale of firefighting equipment is as follows:-
If the fire fighting power of the tube is less than 100lpm than there is no necessity for providing power driver time pump in the factory power first aid firefighting equipment provided as follows:-
The first aid unit 9 lit capacity extinguisher & 4 fire bucket each of 9 lit capacity for every 100cm2 / Area to be installed distance between the extinguisher shall be maintained minimum 30mt. the type of extinguisher & fire bucket shall be selecte4d with respect to the type of risk covered.
The portable extinguisher is ISI mark it should be kept always in good condition & ready for use. This extinguisher should examine, tested & discharged periodically is also necessary to sufficient space, refill changes at the time of refilling minimum of 12 of each size type stock at all time
For the area of 500mt2 & above hose reel with branch & nozzle & having pressure feed supply or hydrant or both with sufficient length of possess nozzles shall be provided on every floor. The length of possess should be such that they should reach full area which is to be protected
if the fire fighter power is 110 gpm one or more light fire pump(portable pump) shall be provided.
More than 200gpm two or more driven fire pump fire tender are provided.
If the fire fighting power tube is less than 120lps then there is necessity for providing power driven fire pump in the factory forever first aid firefighting equipment provided.
GENERAL RULES FOR FIRE FIGHTING ARRANGEMENT:-
Following are the general rules that should be observed by the fire dept. or the management of the management of the factory.
every power driven fire pump(fire tender) shall be provided with a staff of 5 member including 3 fireman, one driver & one operator & one leading fireman. They should be adequately trained in fire fighting operations of the fire pump and the knowledge of chemical and type of risk of the factory
Fire pumps shall be housed in a separate building or shed which is closed to the source of water
If trailer pumps are provided vehicle with towing arrangements to drives shall be provided at scale of 1 vehicle/ 4 fire trailer pumps.
Fire fighting practices shall be held by the fire crew once in a week (mock drill) very important.
Every workers of the factory shall be trained in use of portable fire extinguisher.
Every factory shall appoint the adequate no of trained fire officer who shall be responsible for maintenance & all fire fighting equipment fixed installations and training of the employee.
The management shall prepared fire emergency plan and displace fire notices at the relevant places
CONSTRUCTION OF WAREHOUSE:-
Godown should be located in the safe place away from danger of fire from external source.
Adequate H20 supply for firefighting purpose & easy approach of fire brigade vesicles up to godown should be provided
Storage side should be at list some away from railway line, petrol pump & other industrial area.
No outdoor storage shall be allowed within 15m of godown unless the door of godown is protected with fire proof doors or shutter or drencher. All windows should be protected with wired glasses.
Outdoor storage should allowed with in 3m of the godown building.
Road ways along the godown should be 3m wide & gate 3.5m with sufficient head room to allow the fire tender.
Distance between 2 godowns should not less than 6m.
Single story godown shall be dividing by separated wall in to compartment by separated wall into compartment or up to 60m length & breadth
In case multi storage godown’s the floor shall have 2 hours fire resistance.
All stair cases & lift will cut off from the storage area by brick wall of 20cm thick
Building use for storage of hazards goods shall not be more than 15m in height.
External drain facilities shall be provided around the godown in such a way that flow of rain water should not go inside the godown
Roof of the godown in should be protected with smoke vents no of size not less than 1.3m2, for every 15 m2 floor area one smoke vent should be provided
Arrangement for adequate natural ventilation should be provided in the godown every godown should have one door way for every 45m length.
The contents of godown should be clearly displayed on the wall of godown.
Master electrical switch (main switch) should be provided near the main door of the godown so that all electrical fitting provided inside the godown should be switch off by single main switch in case of fire
All electrical fitting inside the godown should be spark proof type
Every lighting fitting should be not more than 45cm below the roof.